Viral Marketing

Viral marketing – From the wise words of Wiki – why re-write something that is all ready written

Viral marketingviral advertising, or marketing buzz are buzzwords referring to marketing techniques that use pre-existing social networks and other technologies to produce increases in brand awareness or to achieve other marketing objectives (such as product sales) through self-replicating viral processes, analogous to the spread of viruses or computer viruses (cf. Internet memes and memetics). It can be delivered by word of mouth or enhanced by the network effects of the Internetand mobile networks.[1] Viral marketing may take the form of video clips, interactive Flash games, advergames, ebooks, brandable software, images, text messages, email messages, or web pages. The most common utilized transmission vehicles for viral messages include: pass-along based, incentive based, trendy based, and undercover based. However, the creative nature of viral marketing enables “endless amount of potential forms and vehicles the messages can utilize for transmission” including mobile devices.[2]

The ultimate goal of marketers interested in creating successful viral marketing programs is to create viral messages that appeal to individuals with high social networking potential (SNP) and that have a high probability of being presented and spread by these individuals and their competitors in their communications with others in a short period of time.[3]

The term “VRL marketing” has also been used pejoratively to refer to stealth marketing campaigns—the unscrupulous use of astroturfing online combined with undermarket advertising[clarification needed] in shopping centers to create the impression of spontaneous word of mouth enthusiasm.[4]


The emergence of “viral marketing,” as an approach to sales, has been tied to the popularization of the notion that ideas spread like viruses. The field that developed around this notion, memetics, peaked in popularity in the 1990s.[5] As this then began to influence marketing gurus, it took on a life of its own in that new context.

There is debate on the origination and the popularization of the specific term viral marketing, though some of the earliest uses of the current term are attributed to theHarvard Business School graduate Tim Draper and faculty member Jeffrey Rayport. The term was later popularized by Rayport in the 1996 Fast Company article “The Virus of Marketing,”[6] and Tim Draper and Steve Jurvetson of the venture capital firm Draper Fisher Jurvetson in 1997 to describe Hotmail’s practice of appending advertising to outgoing mail from their users.[7]

Among the first to write about viral marketing on the Internet was the media critic Doug Rushkoff.[8] The assumption is that if such an advertisement reaches a “susceptible” user, that user becomes “infected” (i.e., accepts the idea) and shares the idea with others “infecting them,” in the viral analogy’s terms. As long as each infected user shares the idea with more than one susceptible user on average (i.e., the basic reproductive rate is greater than one—the standard inepidemiology for qualifying something as an epidemic), the number of infected users grows according to an exponential curve. Of course, the marketing campaign may be successful even if the message spreads more slowly, if this user-to-user sharing is sustained by other forms of marketing communications, such as public relations or advertising.[citation needed]

Bob Gerstley was among the first to write about algorithms designed to identify people with high “social networking potential.”[9] Gerstley employed SNP algorithms in quantitative marketing research. In 2004, the concept of the alpha user was coined to indicate that it had now become possible to identify the focal members of any viral campaign, the “hubs” who were most influential. Alpha users could be targeted for advertising purposes most accurately in mobile phone networks, due to their personal nature.[citation needed]

Methods and metrics

Messenger: Three specific types of messengers are required to ensure the transformation of an ordinary message into a viral one: market mavens, social hubs, and salespeople. Market mavens are individuals who are continuously ‘on the pulse’ of things (information specialists); they are usually among the first to get exposed to the message and who transmit it to their immediate social network. Social hubs are people with an exceptionally large number of social connections; they often know hundreds of different people and have the ability to serve as connectors or bridges between different subcultures. Salespeople might be needed who receive the message from the market maven, amplify it by making it more relevant and persuasive, and then transmit it to the social hub for further distribution. Market mavens may not be particularly convincing in transmitting the information.According to marketing professors Andreas Kaplan and Michael Haenlein, to make viral marketing work, three basic criteria must be met, i.e., giving the right message to the right messengers in the right environment:[10]

  1. Message: Only messages that are both memorable and sufficiently interesting to be passed on to others have the potential to spur a viral marketing phenomenon. Making a message more memorable and interesting or simply more infectious, is often not a matter of major changes but minor adjustments.

  2. Environment: The environment is crucial in the rise of successful viral marketing – small changes in the environment lead to huge results, and people are much more sensitive to environment. The timing and context of the campaign launch must be right.

Whereas Kaplan, Haenlein and others reduce the role of marketers to crafting the initial viral message and seeding it, futurist and sales and marketing analyst Marc Feldman, who conducted IMT Strategies’ landmark viral marketing study in 2001,[11] carves a different role for marketers which pushes the ‘art’ of viral marketing much closer to ‘science.’[12]

Feldman points out that when marketers take a disciplined approach to viral marketing by targeting, measuring and continually optimizing their campaigns based on campaign metrics, viral marketing transforms the customer into a new sales channel, a new lead generation channel and a new awareness generating channel. Feldman’s innovative reconceptualization of viral marketers went a long way towards making “viral marketing” a strategy that sales and marketing directors at Fortune 500 and Global 1000 companies could legitimately invest in. This disciplined approach to viral marketing that Feldman first carved out, pointed the way towards measuring the ROI of every viral marketing campaign and thus making a real business case for investing in viral marketing. The customer-as-a-sales-channel approach to viral marketing went on to become the foundation for an explosion of technology enabled viral marketing services offered online, offline and in blended hybrid approaches.


Viral marketing often involves and utilizes:

  • Customer participation and polling services
  • Industry-specific organization contributions
  • Internet search engines and blogs
  • Mobile smartphone integration
  • Multiple forms of print and direct marketing
  • Target marketing web services
  • Search engine optimization (SEO)
  • Social media optimization (SMO)
  • Television and radio

Viral target marketing is based on three important principles:[13]

  1. Social profile gathering
  2. Proximity market analysis
  3. Real-time key word density analysis

By applying these three important disciplines to an advertising model, a VMS company is able to match a client with their targeted customers at a cost effective advantage.

The Internet makes it possible for a campaign to go viral very fast; it can, so to speak, make a brand famous overnight. However, the Internet and social media technologies themselves do not make a brand viral; they just enable people to share content to other people faster. Therefore, it is generally agreed that a campaign must typically follow a certain set of guidelines in order to potentially be successful:[14]

  • It must be appealing to most of the audience.
  • It must be worth sharing with friends and family.
  • A large platform, e.g. YouTube or Facebook must be used.[15]
  • An initial boost to gain attention is used, e.g. seeding, buying views, or sharing to Facebook fans.
  • The content is of good quality.

Social networking

The growth of social networking has significantly contributed to the effectiveness of viral marketing. As of 2009, two thirds of the world’s Internet population visits asocial network or blog site at least every week.[16] Facebook alone has over 1 billion active users.[17] In 2009, time spent visiting social media sites began to exceed time spent emailing.[18] A 2010 study found that 52% of people who view news online forward it on through social networks, email, or posts.[19]

Notable examples

Early in its existence, the television show Mystery Science Theater 3000 had limited distribution. The producers encouraged viewers to make copies of the show onvideo tapes and give them to friends in order to expand viewership and increase demand for the fledgling Comedy Central network. During this period the closing credits included the words “Keep circulating the tapes!”[21]The Ponzi scheme and related investment pyramid schemes are early examples of viral marketing. In each round, investors are paid interest from the principal deposits of later investors. Early investors enthusiastically recruit their friends, generating exponential growth until the pool of available investors is tapped out and the scheme collapses.[20]

Between 1996/1997, Hotmail was one of the first internet business’s to become extremely successful utilizing viral marketing techniques by inserting the tagline “Get your free e-mail at Hotmail” at the bottom of every e-mail sent out by its users. Hotmail was able to sign up 12 million users in 18 months.[22] At the time, this was historically the fastest growth of any user based media company.[23] By the time Hotmail reached “66 million users”, the company was establishing “270,000 new accounts each day”.[23]

In 2000, described TiVo’s unpublicized gambit of giving free systems to web-savvy enthusiasts to create “viral” word of mouth, pointing out that a viral campaign differs from a publicity stunt.[24]

Burger King has used several marketing campaigns. Its The Subservient Chicken campaign, running from 2004 until 2007, was an example of viral or word-of-mouth marketing.[25]

The Blendtec viral video series Will It Blend? debuted in 2006. In the show, Tom Dickson, Blendtec founder and CEO, attempts to blend various unusual items in order to show off the power of his blender. Will it Blend? has been nominated for the 2007 YouTube award for Best Series, winner of .Net Magazine’s 2007 Viral Video campaign of the year and winner of the Bronze level Clio Award for Viral Video in 2008.[26] In 2010, Blendtec claimed the top spot on the AdAge list of “Top 10 Viral Ads of All Time.”[27] The Will It Blend page on YouTube currently shows nearly 200 million video views.[28]

In 2007, World Wrestling Entertainment promoted the return of Chris Jericho with a viral marketing campaign using 15-second cryptic binary code videos. The videos contained hidden messages and biblical links related to Jericho, although speculation existed throughout WWE fans over whom the campaign targeted.[29][30] The text “Save Us” and “2nd Coming” were most prominent in the videos. The campaign spread throughout the internet with numerous websites, though no longer operational, featuring hidden messages and biblical links to further hint at Jericho’s return.[31][32]

In 2007, Portuguese football club Sporting Portugal integrated a viral feature in their campaign for season seats. In their website, a video required the user to input his name and phone number before playback started, which then featured the coach Paulo Bento and the players waiting at the locker room while he makes a phone call to the user telling him that they just can’t start the season until the user buys his season ticket.[33]

The Big Word Project, launched in 2008, aimed to redefine the Oxford English Dictionary by allowing people to submit their website as the definition of their chosen word. The project, created to fund two Masters students’ educations, attracted the attention of bloggers worldwide, and was featured on Daring Fireball and Wired Magazine.[34]

Between December 2009 and March 2010 a series of seven videos were posted to YouTube under the name “iamamiwhoami” leading to speculation that they were a marketing campaign for a musician. In March 2010, an anonymous package was sent to an MTV journalist claiming to contain a code which if cracked would give the identity of the artist.[35] The seventh video, entitled ‘y’, appears to feature the Swedish singer Jonna Lee.[36][37][38][39]

On July 14, 2010, Old Spice launched the fastest growing online viral video campaign ever, garnering 6.7 million views after 24 hours, ballooning over 23 million views after 36 hours.[40] Old Spice’s agency created a bathroom set in Portland, OR and had their TV commercial star, Isaiah Mustafa, reply to 186 online comments and questions from websites like Twitter, Facebook, Reddit, Digg, YouTube and others. The campaign ran for 3 days.[41]


  1. ^ Howard, Theresa (2005-06-23). “USAToday: Viral advertising spreads through marketing plans”. USA Today. Retrieved 2010-05-27. June 23, 2005, 2005
  2. ^ “Viral Marketing”. Night & Day Graphics. 30 July 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
  3. ^ “Viral Marketing – Understanding the Latest Catchword”. Video Marketing Bot Pro. 11 September 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
  4. ^ “Wired: Commentary: Sock Puppets Keep It Shill on YouTube”. 2007-05-08.May 8, 2007
  5. ^ Burman, J. T. (2012). The misunderstanding of memes: Biography of an unscientific object, 1976–1999. Perspectives on Science, 20(1), 75-104. [1]doi:10.1162/POSC_a_00057 (This is an open access article, made freely available courtesy of MIT Press.)
  6. ^ Rayport, Jeffrey (31 December 1996). “The Virus of Marketing”. Fast Company. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
  7. ^ Montgomery, Alan (March–April 2001). “Applying Quantitative Marketing Techniques to the Internet” (PDF). Interfaces 31 (2): 90–108.doi:10.1287/inte. Archived from the original on 2007-02-12. Retrieved 2007-07-10.
  8. ^ Rushkoff, Douglas (6 February 1996). Media Virus! Hidden Agendas in Popular Culture. Ballantine Books. ISBN 0345397746.
  9. ^ Gerstley, Bob. Advertising Research is Changing.
  10. ^ Kaplan Andreas M., Haenlein Michael (2011) Two hearts in three-quarter time: How to waltz the social media/viral marketing dance, Business Horizons, 54(3), 253-263.
  11. ^[dead link]
  12. ^ Neuborne, Ellen (18 March 2001). “Viral Marketing Alert!”. BusinessWeek.
  13. ^ Pariñas, Jerico (28 April 2011). “Spread the Words through Viral Marketing”. XING. Retrieved 19 January 2013.
  14. ^ “Viral Marketing Explained”. Up Your Views. Retrieved 19 January 2013.
  15. ^ Maqsood, Umair (28 October 2012). “How YouTube Can Be Used for Viral Marketing”. GrowMap. Retrieved 19 January 2013.
  16. ^ “Social Networking’s New Global Footprint”. Nielsen Wire. 9 March 2009.
  17. ^ “Key Facts”. Facebook. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
  18. ^ Morrissey, Brian (9 March 2009). “Nielsen: Social Nets Overtake E-mail”. Adweek. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
  19. ^ Schroeder, Stan (1 March 2010). “Social Networks Play a Major Part in How We Get News”. Retrieved 6 October 2012.
  20. ^ U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission. “What are some of the similarities and differences between Ponzi and pyramid schemes?”
  21. ^ Mullen, Megan Gwynne (2003). “A Scheduling and Programming Innovator”.The Rise of Cable Programming in the United States: Revolution Or Evolution?(1st ed.). Austin, TX: University of Texas Press. p. 170. ISBN 0-292-75273-3. Retrieved 2008-04-14.
  22. ^ Lloyd, Tony. “Are You Using The Dynamic Power of Viral Marketing?”. Business Know-How.
  23. a b Subramani, R., & Rajagopalan, B. (2003). Knowledge-Sharing and Influence in Online Social Networks via Viral Marketing. Communications of the ACM, issue 8(12), p.300-307.
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  25. ^ “Marketers Feverish Over Viral Ads”. Wired. 2005-03-22.
  26. ^ “2008 Clio Award Winners”. Retrieved 11 May 2012.
  27. ^ “Top 10 Viral Ads of All Time”. AdAge. Retrieved 11 May 2012.
  28. ^ “Will It Blend”. Retrieved 11 May 2012.
  29. ^ “Breaking the Code”. WWE. November 19, 2007.
  30. ^ Clayton, Corey (November 19, 2007). “Orton burned by the second coming of Chris Jericho”. WWE.
  31. ^ “Chris Jericho – Save Us Secret Site”. Retrieved 2007-11-21.
  32. ^ “New Info! Chris Jericho – Savior Self Secret Site”. Retrieved 2007-11-21.
  33. ^ Sporting Clube de Portugal
  34. ^ “Grad Students Redefine Easy Money With $1-a-Letter Web Site”. Wired. 2008-04-21.
  35. ^ “The Latest On Who (Or What) May Be Responsible For ‘Iamamiwhoami’ by James Montgomery, MTV”.
  36. ^ Montgomery, James (15 March 2010). “‘Iamamiwhoami’: Is Swedish Singer Jonna Lee Behind Viral Campaign?”. Retrieved 19 January 2013.
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  40. ^ Old Spice blows the doors off of Advertising
  41. ^ Behind the Curtain of Old Spice’s Viral Video Mega Hit
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